Chemical characterization

The following instruments are available to analyze the chemical characteristics of particulate matter:

TSI 3800 Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS)

The ATOFMS measures the size and chemical components within individual aerosol particles ranging in size between 30nm and 10μm in near real-time on a continuous basis. The ATOFMS has a temporal resolution high enough to make multiple measurements per second, allowing the characterization of themixture of aerosol particles present in the air, as well as the tracking of rapid fluctuations in aerosol composition.

Manufacturer: TSI Inc.
Location(s): WB facility (Field Measurement). MAPLE

Sunset thermal-optical semi continuous OC/EC analyzer

The OC/EC provides a semi-continuous analysis of aerosol organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentration with a sampling time ranging from 6 to 12 minutes. The OC/EC preferentially volatilizes OC and EC collected on quartz-fiber filters, oxidizing each species to determine their respective concentrations.

Manufacturer: Sunset Laboratory Inc.
Location(s): WB facility (Field Measurement). MAPLE

DMT Photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS)

Photo Acoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) measures the optical absorption and scattering coefficient of particles using a photo acoustic technique. The absorption coefficient can be converted to black carbon mass baesd on the assumption of black carbon mass absorption coefficient. Multiple wavelength measurement allows the absorbing angstrom exponent to be determined, giving an indication of the type and quantity of brown carbon present in addition to the soot.

Manufacturer: Droplet Measurement Technologies
Location(s): WB facility (Field Measurement). MAPLE

Aethalometer (AE-21)

This dual-channel Aethalometer is capable of indirectly measuring the concentration of aerosol black carbon (elemental carbon) in near-real-time. The time resolution is user specified, ranging from 1 hour to 1 minute. The instrument relies on the optical absorption of elemental carbon at 880 nm in the infrared range, and 370 nm in the ultraviolet range to determine the associated mass concentration in a sample.

Manufacturer: Magee Scientific Company
Location: (on loan from Environment Canada)

Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM)

Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures aerosol mass and chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol particles (i.e. ammonium, nitrate, sulphate, organics, and chloride) in real-time (up to 15 min). The ACSM is designed and built on the same technology as Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) combining an aerodynamic particle focusing lens (~40-1000 nm) with high vacuum thermal particle vaporization and mass spectrometry.

Manufacturer: Aerodyne
Location(s): WB Facility

Gas Particle-Ion Chromatograph (GPIC)

The GPIC semi-continuously measures water-soluble inorganic particles and gases using ion chromatography and conductivity detection methods. The GPIC can be configured to measure either aerosols, gases, or both species simultaneously. The GPIC is subdivided into two systems that independently collect and analyze particulate matter and gases – each on separate channels, and both with a 15 minute time resolution.Aerosol species of interest include SO42-, NO3, NO2, Cl, and NH4+. Gaseous species measured by the GPIC include SO2, HNO3, HCl, HNO2, and NH3.

Manufacturer: Dionex Corp
Location(s): WB facility (Field Measurement)

Xact metal monitor (Xact 625, Cooper Environ.)

Xact metal monitor (Xact 625, Cooper Environ.) measures hourly concentrations of trace metals in PM2.5 (particulate matter maller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter). In brief, particles are sampled through a section of Teflon filter tape at a flow rate of 16.7 lpm. The filter tape spot then advances in an analysis area, where the collected PM2.5 is analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) to determine metal mass. The sequence of sampling and analysis can continue automatically on an hourly basis. The metal monitor measures the following 24 metals: Ag, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn.

Manufacturer: Pall Corp
Location(s): WB facility